Friday, February 22, 2008

Fiber Development

Over a period of time, interest in certain poorly performing fibers faded as they were overtaken by some better quality synthetic fibers such as Nylon. Different kinds of cost-effective fibers are available now-a-days. They were once categorized by different generations (as first generation, second generation, third generation or fourth generation fibers) but now they are divided into two chief categories: natural and man made.

Man made fibers

The fibers generated first were called the natural fibers. In this category cotton, wool, silk and all other animal and plant fibers are included. These fibers were introduced first 4000 years ago but their uses were continued till 1940. All these fibers are mostly known as the first generation fibers. Very delicate handling is needed for these fibers. Silks and cotton fibers have never enjoyed good resistance against moths, wrinkles, wear and washings.

Though first attempts were done in 1664 to make artificial fiber success was achieved after another 200 years when a Swiss chemist Audemars first patented artificial fiber in England in 1855. In the course of discovery of durable fibers, a French textile scientist found a greater need about a century ago of synthesized fibers like Rayon/Nylon. Hilaire de Chardonnet was the first one to make commercially productive artificial silk in 1889. Slowly he has come to be known as father of rayon industry because he was the first one to produce rayon commercially on large scales.

These fibers are cheaper in comparison with natural ones. The development of these new fibers opened up fiber application to the various fields like medicine, aeronautics, home furnishing and modern apparels. Fiber engineers produced many new fibers by combining new synthetic fibers with the natural ones.

In 1910 Samuel Courtaulds and Co. Ltd, formed the American Viscose Company and started rayon production. Arthur D. Little of Boston made a film from acetate which is a cellulosic product in the year 1983 and in the year 1910 Henry Dreyfus and Camille made toilet articles and motion picture film from acetate in Switzerland. In 1924 Celanese Company made fiber from the acetate and that was it’s very first use in the textile industry.

The Emergence of Nylon

The miracle fiber called Nylon was invented in September 1931 at the research laboratory of DuPont Company. Nylon is completely a synthetic fiber obtained from petrochemicals which are very different from Rayon and Acetate made up of cellulosic material of plants. Thus, the discovery of Nylon started a new era in the manufacture of new fibers.

New Life style

DuPont started commercial production of nylon in 1939. In the very beginning it used nylon in parachute fabric, in women's hosiery and in sewing thread on experimental basis. Nylon stockings were firstly visible to the public at the San Francisco Exposition in February 1939.

In the times of war, Asian silk was replaced by nylon in parachutes. The other uses of Nylon are in military supplies, ponchos, tires, ropes, tents and in the high grade paper to make U.S. currency. At the time of war cotton was the most commonly used fiber, 80% more than any other fibers. Another 20% is shared by wool and other fibers. When the war ended in August 1945 the cotton consumption rose to 75% of the fiber market and only 15 per cent rise of was registered by manufactured fibers.

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Quick Notes for fashion conscious

So, you decide to get to the fashion industry because you think you are very fashion-conscious by nature. If you want to avoid getting labeled as a social gaffe among your peers at a social party you think you should attend.

Welcome to the fashion industry where only fashion-conscious buffs are invited & honored. Remember, here the rule is stick to what is in vogue as far as fashion is concerned; because fashion keeps on changing. Another point is that the pace of change is very fast today.

Haute couture changes every spring and fall and, perhaps, even in between. Like the ‘Top of the Pops’ chart doesn’t mean your favorite number is bound to remain on top for long, it is very easy to make a mistake – like attending a social event wearing bold orange when the color of the season is, in fact, pastel yellow.

Decades ago fashion trends used to get filtered down only by word of mouth. People would talk about for hours & days together the subject of trend-setters itself and actually start emulating them a little later. However the process of emulation had been very slow that, by the time, the public at large began to adapt, the trends already went out of fashion!

Today the situation is totally different in which fashion trends are set not by the social elite but by the purveyors of fashion news. Fashion houses preview their fall collection in the middle of summer so that everyone knows what will be in fashion in the fall. Marketing campaigns decide which perfume women will soon be wearing.

Fashion trends are not guarded secretively any more like before. Today the trend has changed; fashion being a big business the more people that become aware of ‘what is what’ in fashion, the greater will be the sales of fashion goods. Therefore, it is in the interest of producers of fashion goods and services that they announce their plans louder and clearer.

There are scores of fashion magazines on each & every aspect of the industry. All of them are doing rip-roaring business. There are web sites by the dozens that are updated regularly informing the surfers of what is in and what is out. Hence, if you are fashion conscious, staying abreast of the fashion trends is all the more easy; just with a little effort you can do that!

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Fashion Industry Booming

If more & more people are being inclined to fashion-related jobs or careers you can simply and safely call it the ‘fashion explosion’ that has been reserved for the 2000 millennium. Witness the overall global features pertaining to the fashion industry soon after the Globalization; it’s just mind-boggling! And, turn your vision this side of the globe, Asia and the Pacific, where fashion is getting redefined in a more holistic way!

That’s the global fashion industry of today for you. The overall interest in the fashion industry is on the rise, no doubt and equally boisterous are the opportunities & and competition together. These days it has been made relatively easier to earn a degree in fashion design, merchandising, or fashion marketing. Each of these segments focuses on different aspects of the fashion industry.

As the fashion industry evolves in its own fashion, today we see an urgent need for sophisticated & educated staff that is specialized in the various segments of the fashion world. Those armed with appropriate fashion degrees plus a little more higher education will find for themselves savvy marketing positions in this very competitive industry. The three main opportunities with a fashion degree are fashion design, fashion marketing and fashion merchandising.

Becoming a fashion designer is a dream for many people. But only those with artistic ability and serious determination can succeed in this competitive industry. A fashion designer has an eye for lines, textures and color and brings their vision to life through drafting. Once a final sketch is complete, the designer must choose materials to be used in the final product. After the fabric is chosen, a pattern is cut from the fabric and sewn together.

Fashion Marketing involves the advertising, design and business side of the fashion business. A fashion marketer has to have a comprehensive knowledge of the fashion industry to be able to identify what will be stylish and appealing to their target markets. They are responsible for recognizing and tracking upcoming trends as well as being familiar with the various consumer groups. Fashion marketing connects the designers to the public by tracking consumer-buying habits. The fashion marketer then comes up with advertising campaigns to target specific groups that might be interested in the products.

Fashion Merchandising and marketing work hand in hand. Fashion merchandisers are responsible for buying the clothes and presenting them to stores. One of the largest parts of fashion merchandising is creating displays to help consumers want to buy the products. Fashion marketing is basically the selecting of clothing lines and choosing how the will be presented to the market.

You should consider a career in the fashion industry if any of the above fields are appealing to you. Fashion is a career that combines business aptitude and an artistic eye. When you have a degree in fashion, you will make more money and hold higher positions than those without formal training.

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Textile Networking

The textile industry is primarily based out of 11 countries. Its base is in Germany where it was founded. This is basically a system which brings working people in the same industry together and lets them be connected to each other while they provide the government with proper feedback on the work that is being done and that has already taken place. It also gives a chance to different people to show their skills in an innovative manner and display their creativity. This brings out the cultural heritage of a region or country and lets its people work on what they have inherited from their ancestors.

The textile networking arena is growing by the day. Many people are joining in and helping the world by increasing its production along with earning a healthy living by it. In the year 2003, a group of people consisting of lecturers in the field of textiles, ACESW officers of craft, curators and practitioners from the textile industry commenced the expansion of the Textile Forum South West (TFSW), with a mutually held vision of progressing towards joint efforts. This initiative included the lecturers taking a step away from their normal line of work and into a wider capacity. They were asked to help and embrace a wider range of textile spectators.
This was not just it. They were successful in engaging the new audience in a debate full of critique along with conversations and practical steps, all related to textile networking. The TFSW was created to endorse and expand the level of textile networking to a higher level. The better the teamwork, the better the networking became. People were encouraged to work with others around them in the same region as well as come up with new ideas to implement in the society and textile industry for a new wave. as well as a little refreshing phase for the industry and textile networking.

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Wednesday, January 16, 2008

Ralph Lauren Biography

Ralph Lauren, born Ralph Lifshitz, in 1939 in New York, used to study art and design at the City College of New York and business at City College in Manhattan, and dropped out short of receiving his business degree. Ralph used to work after school to earn money and buy suits that were stylish and expensive. His rich taste of attire soon gave him a trendy reputation among his friends.

He attended the Salanter Academy Jewish Day School and Marsha Stem Talmudical Academy (MTA) and finally obtained graduation degree from Dewitt Clinton High School. In MTA he used to sell ties to his fellow students. Before entering into the fashion world he served in United States Army from 1962 to 1964.

His experience in the necktie led him to an idea of laying the foundation of Polo label in 1967. In the mid 90’s Polo Ralph Lauren became a public company, traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol RL. Polo Ralph Lauren is now a billion-dollar business.

Lauren is one-of-a-kind designers whose aim is to sell "lifestyle", and carry fashion beyond a single item of cloth like a dress or a pair of pants. His idea of fashion includes the overall personality of a person and everything that goes with it; colognes, perfumes, cosmetics, accessories, sheets, drape and even paint. He is also famous for his collection of classic automobiles.

Ralph Lauren possesses over 35 boutiques in U.S. There were 23 locations that include Atlanta, Beverly Hills, Boston, Chevy Chase, Chicago, Costa Mesa, Dallas Denver, Honolulu, Houston, Las Vegas, Manhasset, New York, Palm Beach, Palo Alto, Philadelphia, Phoenix, San Diego, San Francisco, Short Hills, Troy, and Washington DC.

His innovativeness is the secret behind his success as a businessman that has made him the founder, designer and chairman of a company that is worth several millions of dollars. He is not only the first fashion designer to have his own store but also the one who sells the whole lifestyle image that has made the most preferred designers globally. He is much more than a provider of designer clothes and home furnishings; he is the one stop that caters all your needs relating to lifestyle image of sophistication, class and taste.

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Calvin Klein Biography

In the year 1968, Klein and his friend Barry Schwartz laid the foundation of Calvin Klein Limited, a coat shop located at the York Hotel in New York City that later on turned into the vehicle for the wide-ranging lifestyle enhancing products visualized by an expert in the field of fashion, cosmetics and fragrances.

Within a year of inception a buyer from Bonwit Teller placed an order of $50,000 which was indeed a red letter day for the company. Klein met the expectation of Bonwit Teller staff and introduced his first collection of men's and women's coats that was featured at the New York City store. In 1969, he appeared on the cover of Vogue magazine. In 1971 he added sportswear, classic blazers and lingerie to his range of women’s collection. He received the prestigious Coty award for his unique 74-piece women swear collection.

By 1977, he further expanded his market by obtaining licenses for scarves, shoes, belts, furs, sunglasses, sheets, cosmetics, jeans, and menswear. In 1978 he managed to make a giant leap by claiming sales of 200,000 pairs of his famous jeans in the first week they were introduced on the market. By 1981, his annual income figured at $8.5 million as stated in the Fortune Magazine.

He created ripples in the market by creating designer jeans which portrays his name on the back pocket and was advertised with a commercial that featured America’s favorite teasey teen at the time, Brook Shields exclaiming "nothing comes between me and my Calvins."

In the later years the company received a jolt when their line of fragrance and cosmetics failed to meet the expectation of consumers and were soon withdrawn from the market with huge financial losses. In the early 80’s the passion ignited by the Calvin Klein range of designer jeans reached its all time high. A highly successful range of boxer shorts for women and men’s underwear collection set up record sales that grossed $70 million in the very first year.

Their underwear business was promoted in the later 90’s with massive billboards exhibiting images of pop singer "Marky Mark." Calvin Klein ranges of cloth were sold through 12,000 stores in the United States and were available in six other countries. His income crossed over $12 million per annum.

In the later years Klein shocked the fashion world, when he announced that he was considering selling his fashion house but soon he changed his decision. In 1993 he was named ‘America’s best designer’.

Nowadays Calvin Klein Limited is a globally recognized fashion, design and Retail Company shaping the future of fashion design.

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Tommy Hilfiger Biography

Born March 24, 1951, New York, in an Irish Catholic family Tommy Hilfiger is a well-known American fashion designer has been instrumental in bringing revolution in retail clothing market and creator of distinguished brands such as, “Tommy Hilfiger” and “Tommy.” He entered into the retail at an age of 18. Hilfiger would walk down to New York City to get his hands on jeans and bell-bottom pants which he personalized and resold at a local downtown Elmira, New York store, Brown’s.

In the later years he opened his own store known as ‘The People's Place.’ His business failed to meet the expectation of people and after seven years at the age of 25 he went bankrupt. Thereafter he started designing clothes for the rest of his stores in upstate New York (a total of 10), and moved to New York City with his wife. Even though he got the opportunity to work as design assistant with major players in the field of designing like Calvin Klein and Perry Ellis but he turned down the offers as he has greater plans in mind.

Hilfiger took over the company of Mohan Murjani (Gloria Vanderbilt jeans) with the help of two partners. A year after Tommy Hilfiger, Inc. was founded, the company went public and built the company into the empire it is at present.

Hilfiger remained the President of the company from 1982 to 1989, and has designed clothes under the Tommy label since 1984. In 1992, he became the Director of the Company and later Honorary Chairman of the Board and Principal Designer in 1994.

In 2007, Tommy Hilfiger sold his company for $ 1.6 billion, or $ 16.80 a share, to Apax Partners. Hilfiger lives with his wife and four children. His daughter Ally was featured in the popular MTV reality show Rich Girls. His son Rich Hil has been signed by Hip Hop super producer Swiss Beatz’ label Full Surface.

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